OCHA
Part two: Inter-Agency Appeals

West and Central Africa

Bangassou, Central African Republic

Displaced people who found refuge on an island cross the river to meet with aid workers near Bangassou, CAR. OCHA/Adrienne Surprenant

West and Central Africa face some of the world's most complex challenges. Acute and prolonged crises are deteriorating, and needs are growing. Millions of people are being driven to the edge of survival due to a confluence of factors, including conflict and violence, extreme poverty, weak governance, chronically high food insecurity and malnutrition, and the impact of climate change. In conflict-affected regions, civilians are facing a dramatic protection crisis in an increasingly volatile context. The most vulnerable people experience multiple devastating consequences, driving persistent and fast-escalating needs. More than 1 in 10 people living in West and Central Africa (i.e., over 61 million people) will require assistance and protection in 2022.

Humanitarian Response Plans

Violence and climate shocks are driving a dramatic food crisis. Millions of people who earn their livelihoods through farming, trade and livestock have been significantly affected. Across the region, more than 58 million people are facing severe food insecurity, the highest number recorded since 2016. The situation could escalate, as millions of conflict-affected people have little or no access to their land and livelihoods. Close to 14 million people are acutely food insecure in the Sahel – more than double the number of two years ago. In the Central Sahel (i.e., Burkina Faso, Mali and western Niger), insecurity has rapidly deteriorated, and displacement has increased by 30 per cent between 2020 and 2021.

Violence has uprooted more than 15 million people — 2 million more people than one year ago. Insecurity and violence threaten access to health, water, sanitation and hygiene services, depriving communities of access to vital services, increasing human rights violations, and jeopardizing social cohesion. Close to 5.8 million people have been forced to flee their homes across the Sahel in 2021 — more people than ever before. This large-scale displacement places additional strain on weak services and scarce natural resources.

West and Central Africa: Overview of appeals

Many of those displaced have been forced to flee several times, further adding to their vulnerabilities. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Central African Republic (CAR), long-running conflict and protracted crises continue to affect millions of people, with severe protection risks, forced displacement and high levels of food insecurity. In western Cameroon, violent conflict in the south-west and north-west regions has displaced more than 700,000 people. Since 2015, the number of violent attacks increased eightfold in the Central Sahel and tripled in the Lake Chad basin, leading to additional displacement and needs.

West and Central Africa: Evolution of requirements

Climate change is compounding these issues, as a scarcity of natural resources, particularly water and pasture, fuels intercommunal tensions and conflicts between herders and farmers. Increasingly severe droughts are more frequent, and rainfall is irregular and more unpredictable. In 2021, flooding affected over 1.2 million people in 13 countries across the region. Heavy rains and floods continue to take a significant toll on human life, property, land and livestock.

This deepening crisis has already affected an entire generation, and the education of millions of children is compromised. Across the Sahel, some 5,412 schools are closed or non-operational due to violence, jeopardizing children's future, especially girls, who are least likely to return to school after prolonged interruptions. For example, two out of three schools are closed in Cameroon's north-west and south-west regions, affecting up to 700,000 students.

Women and girls are at heightened risk of sexual and gender-based violence. In Mali, the number of reported gender-based violence (GBV) cases increased by 40 per cent in 2021 compared to the previous year. In CAR, GBV is the first identified protection risk. The percentage of women and girls who experienced a protection incident doubled compared to the same period in 2020.

Worsening insecurity is constraining humanitarian access. Aid workers face a complex operating environment and are increasingly at risk. Insecurity forced operations to suspend in some locations, leaving communities without access to basic assistance.

Across West and Central Africa, the socioeconomic impact of COVID-19 is amplifying acute needs, exacerbating chronic vulnerabilities and food insecurity. Through COVAX and other channels, vaccination campaigns intensified in 2021, but actual vaccination rates remain at just 6 per cent average across the region.

Projected situation in 2022 and beyond

In 2022, the situation will remain critical for millions of vulnerable crisis-affected people in West and Central Africa. Trends in the Sahel point towards further deterioration. Spillover effects into coastal countries, as experienced in 2021, will likely increase and affect more and more people.

Political instability persists. The coups d’état in Chad, Guinea and Mali, as well as renewed hostilities across the region's conflict areas and the upcoming elections in 2022, risk placing further strain on the region. In Cameroon's north-west and south-west regions, the fragmentation of non-state armed groups and increasing criminality have led to an increasingly volatile operating environment. In CAR and Niger, the overall protection and humanitarian situations risk further deterioration due to the absence of a political solution that can address the root causes of the crises. In DRC, national and provincial political dynamics and the reconfiguration of the UN Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) could also influence the protection environment amid the emergence of new conflicts and forced displacement.

Close to 1,000 humanitarian partner organizations are working across the region to respond to affected people's most urgent needs. However, the scale-up of the response is hampered by a lack of funding and resources.

Life-saving aid needs to be accompanied by longer-term interventions focused on reducing needs. Humanitarian and development efforts must be complementary, based on the principles of 'do no harm' and community acceptance. Investment is needed to address economic and gender inequalities, lack of access to basic services, human rights violations and non-inclusive governance. More significant resources would also help curb the climate emergency and the worrying rise in hunger.

Burkina Faso

HRP
People in need
3.5 million
People targeted
3 million
Requirements (US$)
561 million
Total Population
21.5 million
Income level
Low income
INFORM Severity Index
4.1 / Very High
Consecutive appeals
2013 - 2022
People reached (2021)
1.6 million

Analysis of the context, crisis and needs

In 2022, Burkina Faso will continue to confront a multidimensional crisis. Nearly one fifth of the national population now needs humanitarian assistance. Widespread insecurity, violations of international humanitarian and human rights law, and reduced presence of the State in areas severely impacted by conflict have driven more than 1.4 million people from their homes, and affected access to basic services and livelihoods for an additional 2.3 million people. The conflict has exacerbated chronic vulnerability to climatic variance (drought, flooding). Combined with the effects of COVID-19, this left 2.9 million people severely food insecure (IPC 3+) during the 2021 lean season.

Insecurity now marks over half the country. The reported number of security incidents has risen from 211 in 2019 to 720 in the first eight months of 2021. The number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) increased by 32 per cent between December 2020 (1.1 million) and September 2021 (1.4 million). Increased violence against civilians in 2021 makes additional large-scale displacements likely. These population movements are often preceded by serious human rights violations, primarily affecting women, children, elderly people, people living with disabilities, and host communities who continue to receive and support new internally displaced persons (IDPs). Nearly 80 per cent of registered IDPs are women and children under 15 years of age (53 per cent female; 54 per cent boys and girls under 15 years of age). The number of Burkinabè seeking asylum in neighbouring countries has also increased, doubling to 38,000 in just six months by October 2021.

In 2021, Burkina Faso has also experienced three major epidemics in addition to COVID-19: measles, vaccine-derived polio virus type 2, and hepatitis E. For more than 900,000 people, access to health care is affected by the closure or reduced capacity of 367 health centres in seven regions, while the number of closed schools increased by 20 per cent to 2,735 in eight regions in October 2021, affecting 316,000 children.

Projected situation in 2022 and beyond

As the crisis continues to spread rapidly, the humanitarian community has adopted a national approach to planning for 2022, in contrast to the focus on specific regions of previous years. It also has decided a stricter targeting and is working to ensure the continuity of approaches across the humanitarian-development continuum. As a result, the total number of people in need of humanitarian assistance stands at 3.5 million in 2022. The most vulnerable groups continue to be IDPs, refugees, people in highly insecure areas without regular access to services, and communities hosting large numbers of IDPs. Women, children and the elderly, as well as people living with disabilities, have the greatest concentration of needs.

Nearing the end of the third year of sustained, large-scale humanitarian consequences of the crisis, 73 per cent of IDP households have been displaced for over 12 months and 34 per cent for over 24 months. More IDPs express their intention to integrate in their host locations (mostly urban settings) rather than return to their places of origin; up to 34 per cent of IDPs now compared to 9 per cent in 2020. This foreshadows the need to shift the type of support towards achieving durable solutions and stepping up nexus-related engagement. Unless further investment in complementary humanitarian and development approaches materializes, continued displacement and limited access to basic services, such as water and sanitation, education, health care and protection, are likely to increase vulnerability and needs in 2022 and beyond.

Inconsistent rainfall in 2021 coupled with a lack of harvests in some areas due to drought and insecurity have had a major impact on agricultural production. In the Nord, production has dropped by 50 per cent on average and up to 80 per cent in some pockets. This will result in additional food and nutritional needs well ahead of the 2022 lean season (July-September). Additional efforts across the humanitarian-development spectrum are required to enhance off-season cultivation and resilience initiatives for affected communities.

Moreover, water scarcity, combined with poor access to clean water and to improved sanitation and hygiene, is increasing the impact of water-related diseases and protection risks for the most vulnerable women and children, who are most often responsible for fetching water for the household.

Response priorities in 2022

Despite the continued deterioration of the security environment, the humanitarian community has made considerable effort in 2021 to extend operations to a greater number of people in need and into hard-to-reach areas. As a result, some access improvements have been achieved through improved community engagement and collaboration across CMCoord, UNHAS and logistics platforms, for example in the Sahel and Nord regions.

Cumulatively, the humanitarian community reached at least 1.6 million people in the first half of 2021, or 55 per cent of the annual target, despite funding shortages. The humanitarian team undertook a strict reprioritizing effort for the last quarter of 2021, which is systematically advancing into the 2022 planning. In 2022, it will be essential to further strengthen community engagement and accountability to expand humanitarian acceptance and access, and to reinforce collaboration with development and peace partners to ensure enhanced engagement across the triple nexus and to help address the root causes of the conflict.

Burkina Faso HRP

The results of the 2021 community perception and satisfaction survey again show that affected communities rank food security, health care and adequate shelter among their most urgent needs, as well as increased access to basic services, including WASH, education and protection. The results also indicate that the inadequacy of available assistance is a source of dissatisfaction, both in terms of the number of people reached and the duration of support.

Achievements and innovations

For 2022, the humanitarian community in Burkina Faso has applied a targeting methodology that takes into account the severity of needs and accessibility of services by populations in need of assistance; conducts a geographic analysis to focus on areas in which populations are on the move (displacement) and/or face challenges in accessing basic services and assistance through regular national structures; and considers the humanitarian community’s capacity to respond to these needs.

Through this process, the humanitarian community is enhancing the rigour of our targeting process and thus the credibility of our financing request. Affected populations, national authorities and donors considering the Burkina Faso Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) can have greater confidence that the humanitarian community has the capacity to deliver the support indicated, and that we are not replacing national systems but prioritizing their extension to people most in need. In tandem, the development community in Burkina Faso is developing the new UN Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework, in collaboration with humanitarian partners, which offers a unique opportunity to bridge from the HRP through the Cooperation Framework to Leave No One Behind and ensure that the triple nexus approach becomes a reality.

Further reading

Cameroon

HRP
People in need
4 million
People targeted
2.8 million
Requirements (US$)
371.5 million
Total population
27.2 million
Income level
Lower middle income
INFORM Severity Index
4.2 / Very High
Consecutive appeals
2014 - 2022
People reached (2021)
1.6 million

Analysis of the context, crisis and needs

Nine out of ten regions of Cameroon continue to be impacted by three complex humanitarian crises: the Lake Chad basin conflict, the North-West and South-West (NWSW) crisis and the Central African Republic (CAR) refugee crisis. Humanitarian needs are compounded by structural development weaknesses and chronic vulnerabilities that further challenge the long-term recovery of the affected people. Despite the response efforts deployed, the severity of humanitarian needs in Cameroon keeps growing due to the prolonged crises, insecurity and displacement, the impact of COVID-19 as well as climate-related effects, such as floods and droughts, weakening remaining household resilience.

The number of people displaced due to the Lake Chad basin conflict continues to increase. As of 30 September 2021, over 607,000 people are displaced in the Far North, an increase of over 47,000 IDPs and returnees since September 2020.

Conflict over natural resources in the Far North has intensified. In August 2021, intercommunal clashes in Logone-Birni (Logone et Chari) over access to water displaced over 21,000 people, including almost 9,000 who sought refuge in Chad. Furthermore, the Far North region experienced exceptional flooding in 2020 and drought in 2021, severely reducing the crop yields triggering acute food shortages. This heavily affected women, who represent 71 per cent of workers in the informal agricultural sector in Cameroon. Together with the armed conflict and the socioeconomic impact of COVID-19, the effects of the natural disasters have led to a more than 70 per cent increase in projected food insecurity from 2021 to 2022. Over 900,000 people were estimated to be food insecure from June to August 2022, compared to 630,000 people for the same period in 2021. Food and access to livelihoods thus remain the main priority for displaced persons as well as host-community members in the Far North.

Cameroon’s eastern regions are home to more than 315,000 vulnerable refugees from CAR. As of 30 September 2021, UNHCR reported the arrival of 14,034 new refugees fleeing instability in the country since December 2020. Access to livelihoods, food, WASH services and education remains limited for these refugees and their host communities. The steadily increasing number of refugees continues to exert significant pressure on natural resources and basic social services in the host areas.

The crisis in the NWSW regions has led to the displacement of over 1 million people since 2017, including to other regions of Cameroon and to Nigeria. Short-term, pendular movement continues within the two regions, but a certain return movement to the NWSW has been observed in 2021, inter alia because of a lack of service and assistance in areas of displacement.

Projected situation in 2022 and beyond

In 2022, 4 million people in Cameroon will need humanitarian assistance, including 2 million people in relation to the NWSW crisis, 1.2 million people in the Far North, and 477,000 people in relation to the CAR refugee crisis. Another 200,000 people will need humanitarian assistance due to the impact of COVID-19 and other epidemics.

Insecurity is expected to remain high in the Far North and NWSW regions in 2022 and will continue to cause population displacement exacerbating limited access to food and other essential needs.

In the NWSW regions, extended lockdowns imposed by non-State armed groups (NSAGs), NSAG attacks and military operations have caused significant humanitarian consequences. Fragmentation of NSAGs and increasing criminality have led to an ever-more fragile and dangerous environment for humanitarians to operate in. Humanitarian access is expected to remain challenging in 2022, with underfunding being an additional impediment to reach people in need.

Thousands of people continue to suffer from human rights violations and abuses in the NWSW. Women, men, girls and boys are acutely affected by distinct protection risks. Food and drinking water are the top priority needs for the displaced population in these two regions, followed by health and education. An estimated 700,000 students are affected by the closure of two out of three schools in the NWSW regions. Attacks on education have forced many families to send their children to the Littoral, West, and Centre regions to pursue their education. However, education remains among the top three priority needs of the displaced population in these three regions.

Response priorities in 2022

The 2022 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) will prioritize the most vulnerable 2.8 million people, based on an analysis of the severity of needs across sectors. A total of 1,630,000 people affected by the NWSW crisis are targeted for assistance (80 per cent of the PIN), 320,000 people affected by the CAR crisis are targeted (67 per cent of the PIN), and 776,000 people are targeted in the Far North (63 per cent of the PIN). A total of US$371.5 million is requested to meet the needs of the 2.8 million people targeted for assistance.

Cameroon HRP

In addition to meeting the most urgent needs, the approach taken in Cameroon recognizes that humanitarian needs are exacerbated by underlying structural causes, including poverty and gender disparities. The implementation of the humanitarian-development-peace nexus approach has been further strengthened in 2021 in the Far North and eastern regions, and it has been integrated into the humanitarian response strategies in 2022. When and where appropriate, response activities are planned in complementarity with development and State actors to maximize impact in selected geographic areas, boosting the contribution of humanitarian action towards the collective outcome, focusing on providing durable solutions for the populations affected by forced displacement. Regarding durable solutions for refugees, UN agencies and partners will focus on the socioeconomic inclusion of refugees and the voluntary repatriation of 11,000 refugees, including 5,000 Central Africans and 6,000 Nigerians as part of existing responses towards resilience building.

Protection against violence and abuse and gender sensitive programming remain priorities in the humanitarian response in Cameroon, including through promoting the centrality of protection and gender mainstreaming.

Achievements and innovations

People affected by crises in Cameroon have significant psychosocial mental health needs. In the 2021 HRP, the education, health and protection sectors, including the child protection and gender-based violence Areas of Responsibility (AoRs), included psychosocial support to people affected by crisis as a priority in their respective sectoral strategies. The sectors committed to work together to provide psychosocial support and mental health care to improve the well-being of people traumatized by violence, and to build resilience among affected populations.

Several projects aiming to improve the mental health of affected people were included in the HRP 2021. In 2021, more than 2,600 primary and secondary schoolteachers in 10 regions have been trained on how to include psychosocial support in the curricula and how to deliver psychological first aid to students, other teachers and community members. It is estimated that trained teachers will reach more than 300,000 students in primary and secondary schools in 2021. Mental health working groups, led by the health sector with the active participation of education and protection partners, were established in 2021 at the national level and in three regions (Far North, North-West and South-West). The health, protection and education sectors plan to further strengthen an integrated approach on mental health programme delivery in 2022.

Further reading

Central African Republic

HRP
People in need
3.1 million
People targeted
2 million
Requirements (US$)
461.3 million
Total population
4.9 million
Income level
Lower income
INFORM Severity Index
4.3 / Very High
Consecutive appeals
2003 - 2022
People reached (2021)
1.7 million

Analysis of the context, crisis and needs

An estimated 3.1 million people need humanitarian assistance in the Central African Republic (CAR). Overall, at the intersectoral level, two thirds of the country’s sub-prefectures have reached extreme severity levels (Severity Phase 4, the remaining one third have reached severe severity levels (Severity Phase 3).

According to data from the 2021 Multisectoral Needs Assessment (MSNA), three quarters of adults are concerned about the safety of their household members. The percentage of women and girls who experienced a protection incident in the past 30 days doubled compared to 2020, with gender-based violence (GBV) now being the first protection risk. Blatant violations of human rights, including on minorities, and international humanitarian law are reported. One in four households recently surveyed experienced movement restrictions. Nearly 1 million people have been affected by shocks, as recorded by the alerts issued by the UNICEF/Rapid Response Mechanism (RRM).

One in four Central African has been uprooted from their homes – either within CAR or in neighbouring countries. This is the highest displacement level ever recorded since 2015. Food insecurity is on the rise, with 73 per cent of the population reporting an insufficient food consumption. Nine out of ten Central Africans have resorted to negative coping mechanisms. Seventy per cent of female-headed households now earn less than XAF 30,000 per month (US$54); this proportion increased by 30 per cent compared to last year.

The economy has experienced two difficult years due to the combined impact of COVID-19 and the deteriorating security situation. In 2021, the agricultural harvest decreased by 40 per cent compared to 2020. The number of attacks on civilian infrastructure, such as schools and hospitals, has never been so high. Conflict has severely impacted access for affected civilians to already limited basic services. One in three Central Africans does not have access to essential services within an hour's walk. Security incidents affecting humanitarian workers continued to increase: 364 incidents were recorded from January to October compared to 339 during the same period in 2020. Three humanitarian workers were killed and 24 injured.

Projected situation in 2022 and beyond

The equation is simple and the result dramatic for the Central African population: as the conflict has intensified since December 2020, all the drivers of the humanitarian crisis have worsened (increasing protection risks, increasingly limited access to essential services, deteriorating security situation, upsurge in violent shocks, loss of purchasing power and growing poverty), further worsening the already extremely dire humanitarian situation faced by CAR’s population.

With a score of 7.8, CAR ranks six in the world in terms of risk level according to the INFORM 2021 index, with very high risks of conflict, socioeconomic vulnerabilities and lack of human capital. The projection of the IPC Analysis conducted by the Food Security Cluster indicates that 2.4 million people will be in need if there is no food assistance provided by humanitarian actors during the lean season. According to World Bank projections, more than 3.44 million people, or 70 per cent of the Central African population, are expected to be living in extreme poverty in 2021-2022. By 2025, GDP per capita is expected to be roughly similar to that of 2003.

In the absence of a political solution, there is a significant risk of further deterioration of the overall protection and humanitarian situation in the country. As a result, violence against civilians, civilian infrastructure and humanitarian actors is likely to continue, as will the pressure on humanitarian actors, who anticipate several simultaneous crises in different parts of the country. The most vulnerable population groups, including minorities, will continue to require a sustained and principled humanitarian response.

Response priorities in 2022

The humanitarian community assisted 1.7 million people (94 per cent of the 2021 HRP target) with multisectoral assistance between January and September 2021, despite ever-growing needs and an extremely insecure operating environment. This assistance was thanks to flexible response approaches and mutualization of resources. Three quarters of beneficiaries have reported feeling safe accessing humanitarian assistance, which is higher than last year, and that they trust humanitarian actors.

CAR HRP

In 2022, humanitarian actors aim to target 2 million people. They will underpin their response around two pillars: a) strengthened efforts to protect and assist the most vulnerable, including people living with disabilities, and women, girls and boys who are at risk of GBV; and b) a response as close as possible to those most in need, including in hard-to-reach areas, and informed by affected people’s choices, feedback and participation. Principled, integrated, flexible and multisectoral response approaches in areas under severity 4 will be further scaled up. In line with identified priorities under the humanitarian-development-peace nexus, humanitarian actors will continue to strengthen area-based approaches and complementarity with durable solutions projects, social protection schemes, funding instruments and disaster risk reduction programmes.

Further reading

Chad

HRP
People in need
5.5 million
People targeted
3.5 million
Requirements (US$)
500 million
Total population
16.9 million
Income level
Low income
INFORM Severity Index
4.2 / Very High
Consecutive appeals
2004 - 2022
People reached (2021)
2 million

Analysis of the context, crisis and needs

Chad continues to be afflicted by prolonged humanitarian crises due to growing insecurity in the country and in neighbouring countries, as well as socioeconomic, health and climate-related challenges in a context of political transition. The combined effects of conflict, health emergencies and climate change affected an estimated 5.5 million people, or one third of the population, in 2021.

In Lac Province, where armed groups operating in the Lake Chad basin are still active, the protection of civilians remains a major challenge and humanitarian access is often affected by the operations of armed actors. Due to insecurity, the number of forcibly displaced people in Chad has reached an unprecedented level, with over 1 million refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and returnees. In Lac, more than 406,500 people, or 60 per cent of the province's population, are internally displaced. In addition, the country hosts over 528,000 refugees and asylum seekers, including 42,700 people who have arrived in 2021. These people, mostly from Sudan, the Central African Republic (CAR), Nigeria and Cameroon, depend primarily on humanitarian assistance. In addition, more than 100,000 Chadians returned to Chad from CAR and Lake Chad basin countries due to insecure social political environment. Expulsions of Chadian nationals from Libya to Chad’s Ennedi Ouest Province have continued, with 560 expulsions in 2021 and 1,100 last year.

In 2021, more than 1.8 million people have been affected by severe food insecurity (IPC phase 3 to 5 of the Cadre Harmonisé and 3.3 million people have been “under pressure” (phase 2 of the Cadre Harmonisé). The acute malnutrition level among children exceeds the emergency threshold of 10 per cent for global acute malnutrition (GAM) and 2 per cent for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). At the national level, the prevalence of GAM is 11 per cent and that of SAM is 2.1 per cent, according to the SMART survey results published in October 2021. The prevalence of acute malnutrition remains a concern in 16 of the country's 23 provinces. Malnutrition is exacerbated by the critical under-five mortality rate, which has reached two persons for every 10,000 inhabitants per day in two provinces. Acute malnutrition affects 1 million children under 5 years of age, including more than 270,000 children affected by SAM and 760,100 children affected by moderate acute malnutrition. This is due to several factors, including food insecurity, childhood diseases, conflicts, prolonged displacements and poor access to basic services such as health care, potable water and education.

In Chad, health emergencies affect nearly 2 million people. The most vulnerable among them are children under 5 years of age, pregnant and breastfeeding women, people with disabilities and the elderly. The most recurrent health emergencies are malaria and epidemics such as measles, COVID-19, cholera, leishmaniasis, chikungunya, meningitis, polio and influenza.

Heavy rains in 2021 affected more than 256,000 people and caused flooding that destroyed homes, basic social infrastructure and the livelihoods of many farmers and herders in southern provinces (Tandjile, Moyen Chari, Mandoul, and Logone Oriental) and in the northern part of the country (Borkou and Ennedi-Ouest).

Women and girls are particularly vulnerable to these crises because of harmful social norms and cultural practices that contribute to limiting their access to basic social services (health, education, protection, household economy) and to increasing risks of gender-based violence (GBV).

The humanitarian situation in Chad remains marked by severe and growing needs in a context of underfunding. As of late October, only 22 per cent of the funds required in 2021 had been mobilized. However, despite the lack of resources, humanitarian partners, in coordination with the Government, have managed to provide emergency assistance to 2 million people (out of a target of 4 million) with food, nutritional supplies, shelter, protection, health care, education and WASH. Increased funding would reduce the vulnerability of crisis-affected people and promote anticipatory actions to make them more resilient to shocks.

Projection of the situation in 2022 and beyond

Chad will continue to be affected by four major interconnected crises: population movements, food insecurity and malnutrition, health emergencies and the consequences of climate change.

The security context will continue to be affected by the political landscape and dynamics surrounding the organization of elections after the transition period and the security situation in neighboring countries, including the presence of various rebels groups. The presence of non-state armed groups (NSAGs) in the Lake Chad basin and the military operations against these groups are likely to perpetuate the current displacement situation and trigger new displacements in Lac as well as new influxes of refugees from Nigeria.

Nearly 1 million people will be at risk of protection, some 344,000 of whom are anticipated to require protection from GBV. The active presence of NSAGs in northern CAR will slow down the potential return of Central African refugees from southern Chad and could result in new arrivals of Central African refugees and Chadian returnees during the year. In addition, security instability in Libya will result in new waves of returnees to northern Chad. However, political developments in Sudan could lead to a gradual return of Sudanese refugees from eastern Chad. Intercommunal conflicts, particularly conflicts between farmers and herders, remain important factors of insecurity that could lead to loss of life and property in the east and south of the country. The consequences of climate change, particularly droughts and floods, will affect agroforestry production, with negative impacts on food security and malnutrition. Access to basic social services, especially health related services, are particularly needed due to the persistence of epidemics (such as cholera, measles, leishmaniasis, meningitis and malaria) and education, will remain difficult because of the lack of adequate health care, as well as the inadequacy of school infrastructure and the lack of qualified teachers. The persistence of COVID-19 could further affect the living conditions of the most vulnerable people.

Response priorities in 2022

In 2022, the humanitarian response will continue to be guided by the 2017 - 2022 multi-year strategic framework and its objectives: to save and preserve life and dignity through integrated and coordinated multisectoral emergency assistance; to reduce vulnerability by building resilience and resistance to recurrent shocks; and to contribute to the protection of the most vulnerable populations, particularly children, girls and women, and to strengthen accountability to affected populations.

The response will promote an integrated multisectoral approach through defined multisectoral strategies (WASH in nutrition, WASH in school, WASH in health), including for refugees, and will strengthen the complementarity between humanitarian, development and peace action to contribute to the achievement of collective results. This approach will also devote particular attention to the centrality of protection and the fight against GBV. In this context, strengthening the Government's leadership and the search for durable solutions for people in movements situations (IDPs, returnees and refugees) will be a priority.

Chad HRP

Planning will be based on, among other things, the specific vulnerabilities of women, girls, boys, children and people with disabilities. It will integrate protection concerns and address the humanitarian impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The centrality of protection, gender and accountability to affected populations will be reinforced through community-based approaches and disaggregation of data to prevent protection risks and ensure basic human rights, taking into account the situation of people with specific needs. Emergency preparedness, response and risk reduction measures remain vitally important to mitigate the humanitarian consequences of climate change. The use of cash transfer modalities, based on a feasibility and market accessibility study, will be further strengthened. Measures to prevent the sexual abuse and exploitation of aid beneficiaries will be strengthened through sensitizing humanitarian staff and beneficiaries as well as implementing monitoring and complaint management tools.

The humanitarian community estimates that in 2022, 5.5 million people will need humanitarian assistance out of Chad’s population of 16.8 million. This figure is calculated based on the projection of people affected by food insecurity (IPC phase 2 and phase 3 and plus of the Cadre harmonisé) as well as updated data on people in displacement situations.

The humanitarian response will target 3.5 million people with an estimated funding requirement of approximately US$500 million. This funding requirement is less than that of the HRP 2021 ($617.5 million) and 2020 ($545.3 million), as the 2022 HRP seeks to complement other planning frameworks, such as the National Development Plan and stabilization programmes under peace building funds.

Further reading

Democratic Republic of the Congo

HRP
People in need
27 million
People targeted
8.8 million
Requirements (US$)
1.88 billion
Total population
92.4 million
Income level
Low income
INFORM Severity Index
4.6 / Very High
Consecutive appeals
1999 - 2022
People reached (2021)
7.1 million

Analysis of the context, crisis and needs

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) remains one of the world’s most complex and protracted humanitarian crises. Armed conflict continues unabated in the eastern part of the country, particularly in North Kivu and Ituri Provinces, where the Government has declared a state of siege. Almost 5.5 million people are still uprooted, the highest count in Africa. In 2021 alone, there were an estimated 1.5 million displacements. DRC also currently hosts 517,790 refugees from neighbouring countries.

According to the latest IPC cycle, 27 million people face acute food insecurity, which remains the highest number for a single country in the world. In addition, an estimated 4 million children under 5 years of age are acutely malnourished, a 17 per cent increase from last year.

Violent conflict, epidemics and natural disasters continue to compound high levels of poverty, weak public infrastructure and basic social services, as well as conflict dynamics over land and mineral resources. Since October 2021, a new Ebola outbreak has emerged in North Kivu with 11 cases, adding to the complexity of the humanitarian situation in the highly volatile northern part of the province.

COVID-19 continues to place a toll on the population, with at least 57,879 confirmed cases and expansion throughout the territory. These developments come in addition to recurring epidemics such as cholera and measles. As of October, there have been 6,208 cases of cholera and 50,046 cases of measles registered since the beginning of the year. This is despite the end of the national measles epidemic in August 2020.

Natural disasters have also placed their mark on humanitarian response. On 22 May 2021, the eruption of Mount Nyiragongo led to the temporary displacement of over 400,000 residents of Goma, leaving an estimated 10,000 people homeless.

The volatile security situation, particularly in the eastern part of the country, and poor infrastructure continue to hinder access to affected people. DRC remains one of the riskiest environments for humanitarian workers. At least 260 security incidents directly affecting humanitarian personnel or assets have been reported since the beginning of 2021.

Projected situation in 2022 and beyond

Conflicts and population movements in eastern DRC are expected to continue in 2022 with persistent clashes, particularly between armed groups and national armed forces. High levels of acute food insecurity in several parts of the country and the effects of communicable diseases (cholera, measles, malaria, COVID-19) will remain. The situation could be further aggravated by the evolution of new epidemics (e.g the recent Ebola outbreak in North Kivu and the meningitis epidemic in Tshopo) and potential natural disasters, such as floods. Most vulnerable groups include IDPs, returnees and host communities.

National and provincial political dynamics and the reconfiguration of the UN Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) could also influence the protection environment and local contexts. Regional risks include a renewed and increased influx of Congolese nationals expelled from Angola (towards the Kasai region and Kwango Provinces).

The number of people who need humanitarian assistance in DRC in 2022 (27 million) has increased compared to 2021 (19.6 million). This is due to an increased number of people in acute food insecurity (essentially due to increased geographical coverage of the IPC analysis). In addition, ongoing and intensified conflict in some areas (particularly North Kivu and Ituri but also parts of South Kivu and Tanganyika) will continue to severely affect people. Structural underdevelopment and humanitarian crises will continue to limit people’s access to essential goods and services, impacting their capacity for resilience.

Response priorities in 2022

The 2022 response strategy will focus on population movements, food insecurity, malnutrition, epidemics and protection incidents. In 2022, humanitarian partners will aim to assist 8.8 million of the most vulnerable people in DRC, with an estimated financial requirement of US$1.88 billion. The Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) has been further prioritized through intersectoral severity analysis and convergence and based on operational capacity to ensure the most severe needs are prioritized.

DRC HRP

A key focus of the humanitarian response will be on Ituri, North and South Kivu and parts of Tanganyika, where there is a convergence of humanitarian impacts, deepening humanitarian needs and increasing vulnerability levels. The humanitarian community will deliver targeted, multisectoral assistance, and it will continue to reinforce its accountability to affected people (AAP), prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse, mitigation of gender-based violence risks in programme implementation, inclusion of people with disabilities and localization. Building on progress made since 2019, particularly based on joined efforts in Kasai and Tanganyika Provinces, humanitarian actors will continue operationalizing the nexus approach to help reduce vulnerabilities and decrease humanitarian needs.

Achievements and innovations

During the 2022 Humanitarian Programme Cycle process, the DRC humanitarian community mobilized itself to better understand affected communities’ perceptions of humanitarian actors and humanitarian interventions. For this purpose, under the overall coordination of the national and regional inter-clusters, humanitarian actors conducted a perception survey with a sample of women and men from IDP, returnee and host communities in six provinces, as well as a series of focus group discussions (57 groups targeting IDPs, returnees and host communities in six provinces) to collect quantitative and qualitative data to capture perceptions, concerns and information needs by crisis-affected populations.

This data, analysed jointly with the results of a Multi-Sector Needs Assessment conducted in one province, revealed a number of useful observations, including on the opinions of IDPs, returnees and host communities on current humanitarian interventions; on their preferences and priorities for future humanitarian interventions; and on priority information needs and preferred means of communication with humanitarian actors. The results were analysed during regional workshops. They will continue feeding into the ongoing planning and programming cycle and into the AAP Working Group at HCT to better inform decision-making, harmonize approaches and strengthen efforts.

Further reading

Mali

HRP
People in need
6.3 million
People targeted
4.8 million
Requirements (US$)
576 million
Total population
20.9 million
Income level
Low income
INFORM Severity Index
4.4 / Very High
Consecutive appeals
2012 - 2022
People reached (2021)
2.5 million

Analysis of the context, crisis and needs

In 2021, the humanitarian crisis in Mali worsened due to an increase in and expansion of intercommunal violence and attacks by non-State armed groups (NSAGs) in the central, southern and western regions. The crisis was aggravated by the political upheavals marked by two coups d'état in August 2020 and May 2021, and persistent uncertainty of the political transition leaves the State with weakened capacity to meet people’s basic needs. Over 90 per cent of the rural population live in a conflict area or fear that the conflict will spread to their locality. The use of improvised explosive devices, the destruction of communication antennas, bridges and roads, the encirclement of villages and markets by NSAGs, and counter-insurgency military operations are hindering populations’ access to services and livelihoods and preventing the mobility of personnel and humanitarian commodities.

Internal displacement of people increased by 100,000 in 2021, reaching over 401,000 quadruple the number seen two years ago. A total of 156,000 Malian refugees reside in neighbouring countries while Mali hosts and provides protection and assistance to 48,000 refugees. Mali’s economic gains eroded, with 900,000 people (0.04 per cent of the population) falling back into poverty due to the socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19. Households' weakened capacity to recover is due to income loss, reduced remittances and a higher cost of living. The World Bank forecasts an increased poverty rate of 4.8 per cent in 2022. The protection crisis worsened with an increase in security incidents. Gender-based violence (GBV) actors reported 5,486 GBV incidents, an increase of 41 per cent of cases reported at the same period in 2020. The latest United Nations (UN) report of the UN Secretary-General recorded a 32 per cent increase in human rights incidents compared to 2020.

More than 1,640 schools are closed due to insecurity, affection more than 2.9 million children, 40 per cent of whom are in four districts of the central Mopti region. In the southern regions, 10 per cent of schools are reported closed in Koulikoro, Koutiala and Sikasso, denying 30,000 children their education. To date, Mali reported over 15,800 COVID-19 cases. In 2021 health-service delivery declined by 22 per cent in comparison to 2020, a decrease of 31 per cent of curative consultations and a decrease of 24 per cent of Penta vaccination coverage. Twenty-one health centres are non-functional and 82 are partially functional due to insecurity. Despite a decrease in the acute malnutrition rate from 9.4 to 7.2 per cent between 2019 and 2020, 2.6 million people will need curative and preventive nutritional assistance in 2022, an increase of 1.5 million people compared to 2021. In 2021, 1.3 million people experienced an elevated level of acute food insecurity, the highest level since 2015, and 3 million people were affected by the poor rains and an extended lean season.

The humanitarian situation remains hampered by increased needs and low funding, with 32 per cent of funds mobilized as of 31 October 2021. Despite operational constraints, humanitarian partners assisted over 2.45 million of 4.7 million targeted people as of 30 September 2021.

Projected situation in 2022 and beyond

2022 forecasts a worsening multidimensional crisis politically, socio-economically and developmentally. Political and institutional reform implementation, as adopted in the 2 August 2020 “Plan d’Action du Gouvernement”, will be delayed. This will hinder the investment required for a return of State authorities and services throughout Mali, resulting in reliance on humanitarian assistance. The risk of sanctions imposed due to political delays is high. The persistence of State absence, rampant impunity and widespread armed violence will continue to generate multiple and protracted displacements, accentuating the civilian population’s vulnerabilities and negative coping mechanisms and increasing the risk of community tensions.

The combined shocks will reduce households’ recovery and resilience capacities in severely crisis-affected areas. Exceptionally high cereal prices undermine households’ ability to access sufficient and diversified food. The agricultural harvest of 2021-2022 forecasts a 20-50 per cent drop in crops is observed in the central regions, in the Sahelian strip of Kayes and Koulikoro, Gao, Kidal, Ménaka, Taoudéni and Timbuktu respectively due to floods, water scarcity and abandoned fields as a result of the escalation of violence.

The Humanitarian Response Plan will cover all geographical areas and vulnerable populations including internally displaced persons, returnees, local populations, migrants and refugees. In 2022, of the 12.9 million people affected by the crisis, 6.3 million need humanitarian assistance, which is an increase of 6.8 per cent compared to 5.9 million in 2021.

Response priorities in 2022

In 2022, the Humanitarian community is committed to tackle lifesaving needs of forcibly displaced people, to reduce the burden of food and nutrition crisis, to mitigate the consequences of the widespread absence of state authorities and the worsening protection crisis needs such as GBV and grave violations of child rights.

Mali HRP

To that end four strategic objectives will be the pillars of the humanitarian response:

  1. To save and preserve the lives and dignity of at least 80 per cent of vulnerable populations affected by humanitarian crisis or natural disasters through multisectoral assistance by end of 2022.
  2. To enable at least 80 per cent of host populations, IDPs, returnees, migrants and other vulnerable groups in crisis-affected areas of central, northern, southern and western Mali to have access to quality basic social services by end 2022.
  3. Enable a holistic, cross-cutting, integrated or specialized human rights-based protection approach for at least 80 per cent of affected people across the response, ensuring that protection is at the core of humanitarian action by 2022.
  4. Build the resilience of at least 80 per cent of people in at least 75 per cent of regions to cope with shocks, reduce vulnerabilities and improve livelihood strategies and disaster preparedness by 2022.

Based on these provisions, partners through an inter sectoral approach will target the most food insecure, health and nutrition, and education involving emergency response to save lives and safeguard livelihoods of the most vulnerable people affected by the conflict, the IDPs, refugees and host communities.

The humanitarian response targeting 4.8 million people requires an overall budget of US$576 million. It takes into consideration the forecasted needs in a worsening situation in the central and southern regions, and a tighter target of 75 per cent of the overall People in Need figure in comparison to 2021.

Further reading

Niger

HRP
People in need
3 million
People targeted
2.1 million
Requirements (US$)
475 million
Total population
25.1 million
Income level
Low income
INFORM Severity Index
3.9 / High
Consecutive appeals
2011 - 2022
People reached (2021)
1.7 million

Analysis of the context, crisis and needs

Niger faces a broad range of complex humanitarian needs linked to escalating conflict-related violence, climate-related disasters and socioeconomic challenges. The number of people in need has increased by 65 per cent, from 2.3 million in 2019 to 3.8 million in 2021. Violence related to the activities of armed actors in the country and surrounding areas in Mali, Burkina Faso and Nigeria has led to severe protection concerns and aggravated chronic food insecurity and malnutrition. This is caused by the effects of climate change as well as limited access to essential social services in a context of high-level poverty in certain areas. Moreover, due to insecurity, many farmers, including internally displaced persons (IDPs), cannot carry out the agricultural activities that represent their primary source of livelihood.

Despite the returns of around 65,000 IDPs in Diffa and Tillabery in 2021, the number of IDPs in Diffa, Maradi, Tillabery and Tahoua reached over 264,000 in September 2021, a 41 per cent rise compared to September 2019. The Government plans to organize the return of about 104,600 IDPs by the end of December 2021. Niger is home for almost 250,000 refugees, an increase of 42 per cent over the past three years but over 17 per cent over the past two years.

The main protection concerns in conflict-prone areas include human rights violations and abuses affecting civilian populations, especially in Tillabery, Tahoua, Diffa and Maradi. The number of protection incidents has increased significantly over the past two years. From January to July 2021, some 2,375 protection incidents were registered against 1,500 incidents for the whole of 2019, and 705 civilians were killed, surpassing 409 in the whole of 2019.

Food insecurity is a long-standing issue affecting millions of people every year. Overall, 8 million people were under pressure from or affected by food insecurity during the 2021 lean season (June-August), including 2.3 million severely affected (IPC phases 3 and 4), according to the findings of the March 2021 Cadre Harmonisé. Furthermore, 450,000 severely malnourished children out of 1.6 million children are affected by acute malnutrition. The global acute malnutrition rate among children under 5 years of age reached 12.7 per cent in 2020, which is above the WHO emergency threshold of 10 per cent. In addition to the COVID-19 pandemic, Niger faces frequent disease outbreaks such as cholera, measles, meningitis compounded by malnutrition, among other things, and the effects of extreme weather events, especially floods and drought. Finally, Niger is dealing with recurrent floods during the rainy season. As of October 2021, torrential rainfall destroyed 11,521 homes and affected 250,331 people, including 77 deaths. Last year, flooding affected over 630,000 people.

The lingering effects of climate change combined with challenges to address the root causes of the endemic poverty, limited access to essential services and livelihoods, and human rights violations in conflict-affected areas will likely continue to affect the protection of the most vulnerable communities and increase their humanitarian needs.

Underfunding remains a major constraint for humanitarian operations, with the 2021 Humanitarian Response Plan only 39 per cent funded as of mid-November. Despite the limited resources, humanitarian actors, in coordination with partners from State services, assisted about 1.4 million people, or 67 per cent of their target. However, more funding would ensure no one is left behind. It would enable more resilience actions to reverse the trend of increasing humanitarian needs of the most vulnerable communities without adequate and well-coordinated short- and long-term solutions.

Projected situation in 2022 and beyond

Overall, 3 million people will need humanitarian assistance in Niger in 2022. The number of people in need in 2021 was an estimate based on a high probability of the severe socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19. However, the consequences of the pandemic happened to be lower. COVID-19 has been considered as part of the humanitarian contextual analysis for 2022. The number of people in need in 2022 is a provisional figure pending the release of the results of the food security projections through the Cadre Harmonisé and the findings of the national nutrition survey (SMART) in November 2021. The identified needs are multisectoral, and their degree of severity varies across departments and the three affected groups of internally displaced persons (IDPs), refugees and host communities. The erratic rainfall in many agricultural areas in 2021 suggests a poor harvest for crops and fodder, which may increase the number of food-insecure people and malnourished children.

Response priorities in 2022

As of 30 September, 926,362 people (72 per cent of the target) received food assistance, and 908,443 people (81 per cent of the target) received WASH assistance. Lack of access and insufficient resources prevented more people being reached, especially in hard-to-reach areas with acute humanitarian needs.

The humanitarian community projects 3 million people will need multisectoral assistance in 2022. The response targets the vulnerable groups in acute need, factoring in their preferences and priorities, the access constraints and the response modalities, the severity of the needs, the gender dimension, and the clusters’ operational capacity to deliver. The prioritization has also considered the intersectoral aspect of the need and included strategic outcome-level targets for 2022 to further improve response.

Niger HRP

Considering the Government has launched a return operation for people displaced since 2015, contributing to durable solutions for IDPs would be explored where possible, particularly in non-active conflict areas. Moreover, in some regions, the drivers and underlying causes of needs are rooted in structural deficiencies. A coordinated approach among humanitarian, development and peace (HDP) and transition actors is needed to ensure areas with high vulnerabilities are addressed collectively through sequencing and layering of interventions to reduce people's self-defined needs under the framework of the HDP nexus in 2022 for a better complementarity in the response.

Further reading

Nigeria

HRP
People in need
8.3 million
People targeted
5.4 million
Requirements (US$)
1.1 billion
Total population
211.4 million
Income level
Lower middle income
INFORM Severity Index
4.3 / High
Consecutive appeals
2014 - 2022
People reached (2021)
4.8 million

Analysis of the context, crisis and needs

Twelve years into the humanitarian crisis in north-east Nigeria’s Adamawa, Borno and Yobe States, the needs are as severe and large-scale as ever. The crisis continues unabated, and affected people’s living conditions are not improving; they still live with great unpredictability, privation far beyond chronic poverty, and daily threats to their health and safety. Crude mortality rates among people arriving from some inaccessible areas are at war-time levels. Food security has improved somewhat, and cautious optimism about the course of the conflict was generated by the ‘surrender’ or escape in mid-2021 of some thousands of ‘fighters’ from non-State armed groups (NSAGs), though the majority are women and children. However, as attacks by NSAGs continue at scale, peace or true stabilization across most of the conflict-affected zones is not yet in sight.

Protection needs are formidable, especially for women and girls, who still lack adequate protection and access to justice and services, and are at risk of violence, abduction, rape, gender-based violence, forced and child marriage, and other violations of their rights. Children are also at risk as unaccompanied and separated minors, and when formerly associated with armed groups, forced recruitment is a further risk.

The operating environment remains extremely volatile: in Borno State all the major supply routes are dangerous for civilians, humanitarian workers, cargo and assets. Security has improved incrementally in parts of Adamawa and Yobe States. Humanitarian hubs and aid organizations’ offices have suffered regular attacks in 2021. Conflict and insecurity continue to cut people off from their main means of livelihoods, agricultural lands. This causes major food insecurity in north-east Nigeria. Protection and livelihoods are linked: women’s and adolescents’ livelihoods tend to be the most fragile, and females are at greater risk of negative coping mechanisms, such as sex work for food or for other survival needs. Boys in desperation are more easily lured into NSAGs.

Humanitarian funding for Nigeria has been in steady decline since its peak in 2017. Therefore, the Humanitarian Country Team’s new two-year humanitarian strategy must make the most of limited resources and capacity. It will ensure this is done collectively – that humanitarian action in the north-east is more than the sum of its parts. The strategy’s coherence, improved targeting based on vulnerability, and prioritization aim to mitigate expected funding shortfalls.

Projected situation in 2022 and beyond

The comprehensive multi-sectoral needs assessment (MSNA) in mid-2021 projects a slight (5 per cent) decline in people in need in 2022 (8.1 million people), compared to a year ago (8.7 million). Needs are multisectoral and vary in severity across areas and among the three affected groups of internally displaced people (IDPs, who still number over 2 million people), returnees and host communities. The analysis shows 121,000 people in 10 local government areas (LGAs) in the most severe ‘catastrophic’ category.

Nigeria HRP

No entire LGA is classified as ‘catastrophic.’ However, 2.7 million people across 28 LGAs are in the ‘extreme’ (severity score 4) category. Fourteen LGAs have overall severity score 4, and 28 have severity score 3 (‘severe’). The Access Working Group deems four LGAs inaccessible due to insecurity.

Response priorities in 2022

To address the gravest threats to life, health and safety, humanitarian partners acting in concert will focus on IDP camp conditions, protection, communicable disease risk, extreme food insecurity and malnutrition, and inability to exercise livelihoods. In parallel, despite near certainty that the conflict and insecurity will continue, it is time to focus on the opportunities (albeit limited) to move some affected people progressively out of crisis.

This strategy is largely one of prioritization, in order to focus funding and implementation on life-saving actions and the most vulnerable people first. The prioritization process in north-east Nigeria focuses on those LGAs and people with multiple severe needs, as identified by the MSNA’s inter-sectoral composites of indicators. The sectors will collaborate on challenges that require concerted actions (e.g. communicable disease control). As a secondary priority, actions will address the critical causes of life-threatening conditions. Area-based, intersectoral approaches to coordination, planning, implementation and advocacy will deepen.

The third priority is helping people move out of crisis and extreme risk. IDP returns may be possible to the few areas secure enough to be safe for civilians and allow humanitarian and even development actors to create the conditions for return. Resettlement in safe third locations will be possible for some. Integration in communities around the displacement sites is likely to be a larger-scale option in the immediate term. Nexus action and opportunities are highly circumscribed: the rampant insecurity leaves little room for development initiatives, though Adamawa and Yobe States may offer more scope for such activities.

For the majority of people in need, with no feasible durable solution yet, progressing out of crisis consists of greater resilience, mainly in livelihoods – there is no reason why displaced people should remain unemployed and dependent for years amid Nigeria’s dynamic economy – and accessing the range of coping mechanisms and supportive services. Not all of these are amenable to humanitarian action, but programmes under this strategy will emphasize those that are.

Achievements and innovations

Humanitarian agencies consult the affected people about the humanitarian response. However, the questions that we ask affected people tend to be granular – which kind of assistance did they prefer, has there been any exploitation to report, etc. We rarely or never ask them how they see the crisis evolving, and how they think they might best endure and eventually overcome it. As part of the Nigeria Humanitarian Country Team’s development of its new two-year humanitarian strategy, partners are convening structured consultations with affected people to obtain and reflect in the eventual strategy, their view on how we might best help them to endure this crisis and, in the medium to long term, overcome it.

Further reading

References

  1. It is important to note that country methodology and geographic scope revisions might explain a change in number of people in need across the region.
  2. As of September 2021
  3. People having received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine.
  4. ACLED, 2021.
  5. CONASUR.
  6. Overall, 607,252 people are displaced in the Far North as of 30 September 2021: 357,631 IDPs (IOM, DTM, July 2021); 114,364 Nigerian refugees (UNHCR, September 2021); 135,257 returnees (IOM, DTM, July 2021).
  7. Overall, 559,871 people were displaced in the Far North as of 30 September 2020: 321,886 IDP (IOM, DTM, June 2020); 114,496 Nigerian refugees (UNHCR, September 2020; IOM DTM June 2020); 123,489 returnees (IOM, DTM, June 2020).
  8. In October 2020, Cadre Harmonisé (Government of Cameroon, WFP, FAO, et al) estimated 629,787 people to be food insecure from June to August 2021. In October 2019, Cadre Harmonisé estimated 324,285 people to be food insecure from June to August 2020.
  9. IOM, OCHA, MSNA July 2021; IOM, OCHA, MSNA December 2020.
  10. 315,747 CAR refugees in the East, Adamawa, and North regions, UNHCR, October 2021.
  11. 347,542 within the NWSW regions (MSNA, OCHA, August 2021); 383,596 returnees (MSNA, OCHA, August 2021); 302,000 to other regions (5,301 to Adamawa (MIRA, August 2019, UNHCR), 60,084 to Yaoundé, Centre (MSNA, CHOI, OCHA, September 2021); 81,298 to Littoral (MSNA, OCHA, September 2021); 81,298 to West (MSNA, OCHA, September 2021)); 67,500 fled to Nigeria (UNCHR, August 2021).
  12. An increase of return movements to the NWSW since 2019 can be observed: 203,634 returnees were registered in the August 2019 MSNA, 360,547 returnees were registered in the August 2020 MNSA, 333,915 returnees were registered in the February 2021 MSNA, 383,596 returnees were registered in the August 2021 MSNA.
  13. The figures are rounded up. The exact estimated figures are as follows: The overall PIN for Cameroon is estimated at 3,951,082, for the NWSW at 2,035,495, for the Far North at 1,239,963, for the CAR refugee crisis at 476,734. Other people in need, not related to one of the three crises, are 198,890.
  14. In 2022, 776,000 and 400,000 peoples are projected to be food insecure in the North-West and the South-West, respectively.
  15. MSNA Littoral and West, OCHA, September 2021; MSNA Centre, OCHA, CHOI, September 2021.
  16. The figures are rounded up. The exact estimated target for Cameroon is 2,790,516. The target for the NWSW crisis is estimated at 1,629,132, for the Far North at 776,077, for the CAR refugee crisis at 319,586, for the others in need, not in relation to one of the three crises, the target is 65,721.
  17. Based on the Joint Intersectoral Analysis Framework Severity Reference Scale.
  18. The target population and required funding are estimates based on “people in need” adjustments and are subject to change after clusters’ final calculations.
  19. Population movements commissions, Statistical data on population movements (September 2019 – August 2021).
  20. UNHCR, Refugee data as of the end of July 2021.
  21. IPC analysis, 20th cycle (July-December 2021), October 2021.
  22. Bulletin SNSAP (August 2021).
  23. WHO/MoH Ebola situation report (30 October 2021).
  24. WHO/MoH situation report 292/2021 (19 October 2021).
  25. Health Cluster data, epidemiological surveillance (week 41, 2021).
  26. INSO, UNDSS, OCHA, as of end of September 2021.
  27. Mali Multi-sector Needs Assessment, (MSNA), Bamako, September 2021
  28. Report on populations movement, Mali, Commission movement de populations, September 30th, 2021.
  29. Data UNHRC portal
  30. Mali Gender base violence information management system (GBVIMS), report as of August 2021 (UNFPA)
  31. Report of the UN Secretary General On the situation in Mali, October, 1st 2021
  32. Mali Cluster Health information management system, Periodic, data update, October 2021
  33. Mali, Enquete Nationale nutritionnelle anthropométrique et de mortalité retrospective (SMART), (Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions),SMART Survey, Mali, Octobre 2021
  34. Niger's economy largely depends on agriculture and livestock, accounting for 40% per cent of its GDP, according to the World Bank.
  35. UNHCR operational data portal.
  36. Refugees are mainly from Nigeria and Mali.
  37. This includes killings, rape, forced displacement, destruction of properties, illegal tax collection, destruction of public infrastructures such as schools and health centrers, and abductions.
  38. As of mid-September 2021, a cholera epidemic has affected over 4,000 people including 140 deaths.